Teres Major is often referred to as the Lats ‘little helper’. Synergists, Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major work together to perform the same actions of the glenohumeral joint (shoulder): Extension, Adduction, and Medial (inward) Rotation.
The Latissimus Dorsi is the largest muscle of the back, and it’s main function is movement of the upper limb. It originates in the mid back thoracic region ; the thoracolumbar fascia, and iliac crest (hip bone). It inserts into the humerus (bone of the upper arm).
Teres Major lays between the Lats and Teres Minor on the lateral (outside) border of the scapula (shoulder blade).
Some of the Movements of the Shoulder are:
Latissimus and Teres Major also medially rotate the shoulder.
A few activities that use the Latissimus Dorsi (and to a lesser extent Teres Major) are: Swimming, rowing, and climbing rope.
Stretches For Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major
Get more from your stretch with Mindfulness, Intention, and Breath
Standing Hands Clasped Over Head:
Stand with your feet parallel about hip width apart. Clasp your hands and place them above your head with palms facing the ceiling. Drop your pelvis, tail bone straight down toward the floor. Chest, shoulders open. Ears ease back in line with your shoulders.
Feel the bottoms of your feet like a tripod. Feel the balls of the big toes, little toes, and heels on the floor.
Breathe and think about stretching your elbows straight and reaching your palms toward the ceiling. Increase the stretch by bending side.
Variation 2: Cross one hand over wrist to guide yourself into more of a stretch.
Sitting Side Stretch:
While this side stretch targets Quadratus Lumborum, it also stretches the lats and teres along the outer border of the scapula and back. Sit cross legged on a mat. Drop your shoulders down and feel that the two shoulders are level. Open chest and shoulders. Head draws back so the ears are in line with the shoulders.
If you feel discomfort sitting cross legged (perhaps your knees are high as opposed to closer to the floor; therefore forcing you to lean back) you can place 1 or 2 folded blankets underneath your sit bones. Your feet will of course need to be off the folded blankets as you want your sit bones to be higher.
Bending to the side, bring one arm over the head and the other at your side on the floor, palm down. Breath and feel the length along the outer border of your scapula and sides of back. You can increase the stretch by placing the forearm on the floor. Look down towards the floor or straight forward as you bend side then slowly turn your gaze to look up (refer to the image above). Breathe.
Having straightened up to the beginning position, keep the arm above your head for a few more deep breaths. Enjoy the feeling of length from your seat on the floor to your finger tips — then lower the arm and begin the side bend to the other side.
Begin by kneeling on a mat in front of a chair. Place your hands shoulder width apart on the chair’s seat. Lower your torso and head below shoulder level as pictured above. Feel the length in your back, along the lateral (outside) border of your scapula (shoulder blade), and out through your fingertips (they of course are still placed on the chair). Following a few or more breaths you can take your hands off the chair and lower all the way down to child’s pose. An exercise ball can be used in place of a chair as seen in the photograph.
Body Alignment: Mindful alignment makes for more effective stretching. It also helps in injury prevention. A few alignment reminders:
Suggested External Links:
Why Is Breathing Important During Stretching?:
Latissimus Dorsi Muscle – Attachments, Action & Innervation:
“What style of massage do you do?”, is a question a number of my new clients tend to ask. My massage sessions are eclectic in that they integrate various modalities depending on a client’s needs. My education at IPSB college introduced me to a wide variety of Western and Eastern modalities. I eventually chose to focus my practice around the Western modalities Circulatory, Deep Tissue, and Trigger Point.
Circulatory (or Swedish) is a style of massage that has a number of therapeutic benefits. Circulatory helps to release tension and stress in the body. The release of tight, constricted muscles eases pain while bringing nutrient rich blood into the muscle tissue. In his text Orthopedic Massage Whitney Lowe writes, “One of the most significant effects of massage is the encouragement of blood flow in smaller capillaries that are restricted due to muscle tightness” (Lowe, 2009). A release of tension in the body is often accompanied with a feeling of release emotionally or/and mentally (stress reduction) as well as increased clarity and energy. It has been suggested that this modality aids the lymphatic system by helping to clear out metabolic waste. A variety of strokes are used. A few of these strokes are: Effleurage (long gliding strokes that move in the direction toward the heart are incorporated throughout a massage session), Compression, Petrissage (grasping and kneading), and Tapotement (percussion strokes). These strokes can be done with light, medium, or firm pressure.
Deep Tissue uses techniques to address the deeper layered muscles. Using no or little oil, the therapist’s tool (thumb, palm, soft fist, elbow) sinks into the muscle tissue and glides slowly along the direction of the muscle fiber. Starting with a compression, the pressure increases as the tension in the tissue melts and dissolves. The follow stroke’s depth and speed is determined by the release of the client’s fascia and muscle tissue (Osborne – Sheets, 1997). Effleurage is a massage stroke most commonly associated with Circulatory (or Swedish) massage, but in Deep Tissue work, deep effleurage strokes can be most effective in easing out tension and helping to move tissue fluid.
Neuromuscular Therapy focuses on relief of pain that can be brought on by postural distortion, biomechanical dystunction, Ischemia, and Trigger Points. Trigger Points develop in Ischemic muscle tissue and refer pain to other areas of the body. My sessions incorporate bone cleaning (cross fiber) and Trigger Point with Circulatory massage.
Lowe, Whitney (2009). Orthopedic Massage: Theory and Technique. Mosby Elsevier.
Osborne – Sheets, Carole (1997). Deep Tissue Sculpting: A technical and Artistic Manual for Therapeutic Bodywork Practitioners. Poway, California: Body Therapy Associates.
Forward head posture is a common cause of pain that often results from “chronic dysfunctional postural patterns” (Lowe, 186). Instead of forward, the head should ease back so the ears are in line with the shoulders. The farther the head moves forward from it’s gravitational center the more stress is placed on the posterior cervical extensor muscles. “For every inch the head moves forward from it’s gravitational center, it feels if it weighs an additional 10 pounds” (Dalton, 2017). The head does not actually become heavier. Instead, the brain perceives the head as heavier due to the added effort required to hold the head from falling forward (Lowe, 186). The habit of pushing the head forward to stare into the computer (as one example) “allows the brain to map the forward head posture as normal” (Dalton, 2017). Tension and myofascial trigger points can cause neck and head pain. Massage is an excellent way to treat tension and myofascial trigger point referrals that can develop from forward head posture.
[Broome, Melissa]. (2015, August 15). How To Use Your Computer [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZwobgUP9ijU
Dalton, Erik. (2017, February 21). Text Neck and Desktop Neck – Assessing Forward Head Posture [Blog Post]. Retrieved from https://erikdalton.com/blog/text-neck-desktop-neck/
Lowe, Whitney (2006). Orthopedic Assessment in Massage Therapy. Sisters, OR: Daviau Scott Publishers.